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角形鋼管をハッカーで玉掛けして移動中、ハッカーから外れて落下した。

発生状況

工場建屋内において、被災者他1 名は共同してホイスト式天井クレーン(定格荷重5t) 2 基を操作し、共づりにより、2 本の建築資材用の角形鋼管(断面:55cm 長さ:738cm) をクレー ンガー ダと直角方向になるようにハッカーで玉掛けし、出荷製品等の仮置き場へ移動させようと決めた。
両名は角形鋼管をつり上げる玉掛け用具として、天井クレーンの各々1基に対し、 2本つめのハッカー1 個を使用し、2 本並べた角形鋼管の端部に、ハッカーのつめを1 つずつ掛ける方法により玉掛けを行い、一度に2 本の角形鋼管を地切り後、高さ約170cmの位置までつり上げ、共づりの状態で、災害発生場所である出荷製品等の仮置き場まで、クレーンを操作しつつ2 本の角形鋼管と一緒に移動した。
仮置き場到着後、両名は2 本の角形鋼管をつり上げたまま天井クレーンの運転操作を止めかけた状態で、被災者は足元床面に置かれていた角形鋼管の下に枕木として敷く木製の角材を拾おうと角形鋼管の下に入り込んだところ、ハッカーのつめの挿入深さが浅くなり、角形鋼管がハッカーから外れて落下し、当該角形鋼管の下にいた被災者に直撃した。

原因

この災害の原因としては, 次のようなことが考えられる。
1 ハッカーのつめ2 本を、1 本ずつ角形鋼管のつめの奥行きが浅く、引っ掛かりが不十分になったこと及び2 台のクレーンの別々の操作によりハッカーをつる玉掛け用チェーンのつり角度によりハッカーを外す方向に力が働いたこと。

2 玉掛け用具としてハッカーを用い、かつ、クレーンで共づりを行っていた危険な状況下で荷の下に入って作業を行っていたこと。

3 玉掛け作業基準, ハッカーの使用基準等、2台の天井クレーン共づり作業について作業標準等に基づく具体的な定めがなく、関係労働者に対する安全教育及び安全管理が不十分であったこと。

対策

類似災害の防止のためには, 次のような対策の徹底 が必要である。
1 玉掛け用具であるハッカーで鋼管をつり上げる場合には、ハッカーはつめの奥まで差し込んだ状態を保持させること。

2 ハッカーを用いて玉掛けを行った荷がつり上げられているときは、つり上げられた荷の下に労働者を立ち入らせないこと。

3 玉掛けチェーンは絞り込んでつり上げることなどを盛り込んだ玉掛け作業基準の他、ハッカーの使用基準等、天井クレーン共づり作業について作業標準書を作成すること。

4 安全衛生教育の実施等により、関係労働者に作業手順を周知し、安全衛生に関する規律の確立を図ること。
(転載:クレーン誌52巻 2014年11月号)

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