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クレーン用語集

クレーンガーダ

トロリを支持する構造物で、桁(ケタ)もしくは単にガーダともいう。

ランウェイ

レール、レール継手、レール用梁、レール固定用ボルト等で構成されたクレーンの走行軌道

スパン

走行レール中心間の水平距離

寄り

天井クレーン等のつり具の横行停止位置と、走行レール中心間の最小の水平距離

キャンバー

荷をつった時にガーダが下垂しないように、あらかじめガーダを上向きした曲線をキャンバーという。スパンの長いクレーンの桁は、自重及び荷の荷重によってたわむため、製作時において、このたわみを予想してガーダに上向きのそりを与えている。

トロリ

荷をつってガーダを移動する台車をトロリといい、クラブトロリ、ロープトロリ、セミロープトロリ等がある。トロリに運転室を設けたものをマントロリ、マントロリが旋回するものを旋回マントロリという。なお、主巻きと補巻きのトロリを有するクレーンは、 主荷重をつるトロリを主トロリ、 補助のつり荷作業を行うものを補トロリという。

つり上げ荷重

クレーンの構造及び材料に応じて負荷させることができる最大の荷重をつり上げ荷重といい、フックブロックやグラブバケット等のつり具の質量が含まれている。 つまり、クレーンの最大のつり上げ能力を示したものがつり上げ荷重で、クレーンにただ1つしか存在しない。

定格荷重

クレーンの構造及び材料ならびにジブの傾斜角及び長さ又はトロリの位置に応じて負荷させることができる最大の荷重で、フックブロック等のつり具の質量を差し引いた荷重を定格荷重という。 つまり、その時のクレーンの状態において実際につることができる最大の荷重を定格荷重といい、 ジブの傾斜角やトロリの位置が変われば定格荷重の値も変化する。

ジブ及び傾斜角

クレーンの一端を支点として荷をつるために斜め又は水平に突き出した腕をジブという。水平のジブと斜めに突き出ているジブを区別する必要がある場合は、水平ジブ又は傾斜ジブと呼ぶ。ジブの傾斜角は、ジブの中心線と地上面(水平面)とがなす角度である。 巻上操作を行わずにジブの傾斜角を大きくするとつり荷は上がり、傾斜角を小さくするとつり荷は下がる。また、 傾斜角が大きくなるほど作業半径は小さくなり、傾斜角が小さくなるほど作業半径は大きくなる。

起伏

ジブの取付ピン中心を支点にジブが上下する運動

作業半径

旋回できるジブを有するクレーンの旋回中心から、フック、グラブバケット等のつり具の中心から下ろした鉛直線((水平面に対して垂直の方向)までの水平距離

作業範囲

クレーンの様々な運動を組合せて、つり荷を移動させることができる範囲

地切り
クレーンの巻上操作によって、つり荷を地面から離すことを地切りという。クレーンで荷をつり上げる時は、地切り後に巻上げを一旦停止し、つり荷や玉掛けの状態を確認しなければならない。

揚程

フック、グラブバケット等のつり具を有効に上下できる上限と下限との間の垂直距離を揚程という。つり具を最大に巻下げた時、ドラムに2巻以上の捨巻きが残らなければならない。 したがって、ドラムに捨巻きを残し、つり具を有効に上げ下げできる上限と下限との間の垂直距離を揚程という。

定格速度

クレーンに定格荷重に相当する荷をつり、巻上げ、横行、走行、旋回を行う時のそれぞれの最高速度

玉掛け

ワイヤロープやスリング等を使用し、クレーン等のつり具に荷を掛けたり外したりする一連の作業

巻上げ、巻下げ

巻上装置のドラムに巻上用ワイヤロープを巻き取ったり巻き戻したりする作動を巻上げ、巻下げという。なお、巻上げ、巻下げの運動を総称して巻上げともいう。

インチング

押しボタンスイッチ等で巻上げや巻下げを断続的に行う寸動運動

走行

クレーン全体が走行レールに沿って移動する運動を走行といい、通常、走行の方向は横行に対して直角。

横行

クレーンのガーダに沿ってトロリが移動する運動、 ケ-ブルクレーンのメインロープに沿ってトロリが移動する運動、壁クレーンやつち形クレーンのトロリが移動する運動、テルハのホイストがレールに沿って移動する運動。

旋回

クレーンのジブが円を描く運動

引込み、押出し

つり荷を上下させず、荷を前後に水平移動させる運動

クライミング

クライミング式ジブクレーン又はクライミング式つち形クレーンの旋回架構をせり上げる運動

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